Woolly aphid

Symptoms of damage

Nymphs and adults suck the juice from bark of the trunk or fruits

Weakening and death of the smaller plants

Infested twigs shrivel and die

Galls on the roots

White, woolly patches on the trunk.

Identification of pest

Purplish aphid covered with white cottony mats

Wolly aphids on twig

Cottony mat


Use resistant root stocks M 778, M 779, MM 14, MM 110, MM 112

Spray dimethoate 30 EC 0.06% or methyl demeton 25 EC 0.025%

Release the parasitoid: Aphelinus mali

Predators: Chilomenus bijugus and Coccinella septumpunctata

San Jose scale

Symptoms of damage

The infested region in bark becomes reddish pink

Purple discolouration on fruits

Infested shoots – loss of vigour and death of young tree or branches

Identification of pest

Female: Round, slightly convex with a black pustule

Male: Linear

San Jose scale on apple

Red colour discoloration

Adult - San jose scale


Select nursery stock free scale infestation

Summer spray with phosalone 50 EC 0.05%

Winter spray with diesel oil emulsion at 8-12 l/ tree (diesel oil 4.5 l, soap 1 kg, water 54 -72 l)

Encourage the activity of parasitoids: Prospaltella perniciosi and Aspidiotophagus sp

Field release of coccinellid, Chilocorus circumdatus predator

Codling moth

Symptoms of damage

Caterpillar bore into the fruits and feed on the pulp

Infested leaves and fruits show tunnels with frass

Identification of pest

Larva: Pinkish-white caterpillar with black or mottled black head

Adult: small greyish moth, chocolate brown patches near the tip of foreswings 

Codling moth damage to apple

 Codling moth feeding site




Field sanitation

Collect and destroy the infested fruits and cocoons

Banding - corrugated cardboard bands should be applied to tree trunks

Use sex pheromone trap

Mass trap males with codling moth lure traps

Release egg parasitoids, Trichogramma embryophagum at 2000/tree

Apply Virosoft CP4 Granulovirus

Codling moth larvae must eat the virus before they enter the fruit

Spray DDVP 0.04%

Apply acetempride (4 application per season) during egg laying stage

Cottony cushion scale

Symptoms of damage

Nymph and adults suck the sap from leaves and twigs

Yellowing of leaves.

Identification of pest

Female with a cottony ovisac.

Nymph - Pinkish crawler, long antenna and group of hairs.

Cottony cushion scale on stem


Select healthy and pest free rootstock

Collect and destroy the infested plant parts

Spray application of neem oil 2%, NSKE 5%

Spray application of chlorpyriphos 20 EC 0.04% with sticking agent

Field release of some coccinelid predators and chilocorus nigritus

Stem borer

Symptoms of damage

Grub provide circular holes and mass of excreta

Chewed up wood particles protruding out;

Bark gnawed and leaves defoliated

Shoots with circuitous galleries and the infested trees stunted

Identification of pest

Grub: Creamy yellow with dark brown, flat head

Adult: Ashy grey beetle with numerous black tubercles at the base of elytra.


Prune the branches containing grubs before they entered the tree trunk